In the Osage nation there are three primary divisions, which are tribes in the original acceptation of that term. These are known as the Tsiʇu uʇe pec̷ŭⁿda, the Seven Hañʞa fireplaces, and Waɔaɔe uʇe pec̷ŭⁿda, the Seven Osage fireplaces. Each "fireplace" is a gens, so that there are twenty-one gentes in the Osage nation. The Seven Hañʞa fireplaces were the last to join the nation, according to the tradition of the Tsiʇu wactaʞe people. When this occurred, the seven Hañʞa gentes were reckoned as five, and the seven Osage gentes as two, in order to have not more than seven gentes on the right side of the tribal circle.

At first the Hañʞa utac̷anʇse gens had seven pipes, and the Waɔaɔe had as many. The Waɔaɔe gave their seventh pipe to the Tsiʇu, with the right to make seven pipes from it, so now the Waɔaɔe people have but six pipes, though they retain the ceremonies pertaining to the seventh.

When there is sickness among the children on the Waɔaɔe or right (war) side of the circle, their parents apply to the Tsiʇu (Tsiʇu wactaʞe?) for food for them. In like manner, when the children on the left or Tsiʇu side are ill, their parents apply to the Paⁿɥka (wactaʞe?), on the other side, in order to get food for them.

Fig. 30—Osage Camping Circle.

The Seven Tsiʇu fireplaces occupy the left or peace side of the circle. Their names are:

1. Tsiʇu Sinʇaʞc̷ĕ, Tsiʇu-wearing-a-tail (of hair)-on-the-head; also called Tsiʇu Wanŭⁿʹ, Elder Tsiʇu; in two subgentes, Sinʇaʞc̷ĕ, Sun and Comet people, and Cŭñʞe iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿʹa, Wolf people.

2. Tse ʇu̱ʹʞa inʇeʹ, Buffalo-bull face; in two subgentes, of which the second is Tseʹ c̷‘añkaʹ or Miⁿʹpahaʹ, Hide-with-the-hair-on. The policemen or soldiers on the left side belong to these two gentes.

3. Miⁿk’ⁿʹ, Sun carriers, i.e., Carry-the-sun (or Buffalo hides)-on-their-backs. These have two subgentes, a, Miⁿi'niɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Sun people; b, Miⁿxaʹ ska iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Swan people.

4. Tsiʹʇu wactaʹʞe, Tsiʇu peacemaker, or Taⁿʹwaⁿʞaʹxe, Village-maker, or, Niʹwac̷ĕ, Giver of life. These have two subgentes, a, Wapiⁿ, it‘aʹɔi, Touches-no-blood, or Qüc̷aʹ ɔüʹʇe, Red-eagle (really a hawk);
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b, Qüc̷a' pa saⁿ', Bald-eagle, or Ɔaⁿsaⁿ‘u'niɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Sycamore people, the leading gens on the left side of the circle.

5. Haⁿiʹniɥk‘ciⁿʹ, Night people, or Tsiʹɔu weʹhaʞic̷e, the Tsiɔu-at-the-end, or Tseʹc̷añkaʹ. Their two subgentes are: a, Night people proper; b, Wasaʹde, Black-bear people.

6. Tse ʇu̱ʹʞa, Buffalo bull. In two subgentes, a, Tse ʇu̱ʹʞa, Buffalo bull: b, C̸uʹqe, Reddish-yellow buffalo (corresponding to the Nuqe of the Ponka, Tuqe of the Quapaw, and Yuqe of the Kansa).

7. ʞc̷ŭⁿ, Thunder-being, or Tsiʹhaciⁿ, Camp-last, or Maʹxe, Upper-world people, or Niɥʹka wakanʹʇaʞi, Mysterious-male-being. Subgentes not recorded.

On the right (Hañʞa or Waɔaɔe) side of the circle are the following:

8. Waɔaʹɔe Wanŭⁿʹ, Elder Osage, composed of six of the seven Osage fireplaces, as follows: a, Waɔaʹɔe skaʹ, White Osage; b, Ke k’;ⁿʹ, Turtle-carriers; c, Wakeʹc̷e steʹʇe, Tall-flags (?), Ehnaⁿʹ minʹʇe tŭⁿʹ, They-alone-have-bows, or Miⁿkeʹc̷e steʹʇe, Tall-flags; d, Ta c̷aʹxü, Deer-lights, or Ta iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Deer people; e, Hu iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Fish people; f, Naⁿ'paⁿta, a deer gens, called by some Ke ʞaʹtsü, Turtle-with-a-serrated-crest-along-the-shell (probably a water monster, as there is no such species of turtle).

9. Hañʹʞa utaʹc̷anʇi, Hañʞa-apart-from-the-rest, or Qüc̷aʹqtsi k‘ăciⁿ‘a, Real eagle people—the War eagle gens, and one of the original Hañʞa fireplaces. The soldiers or policemen from the right side are chosen from the eighth and ninth gentes.

10. The leading gens on the right side of the circle, and one of the original seven Osage fireplaces. Paⁿɥʹka wactaʹʞe, Ponka peace-maker, according to a Tsiɔu man; in two subgentes, a, Tseʹwac̷ĕ, Pond-lily, and b, Wacaʹde, Dark-buffalo; but according to Paⁿɥʹka waʇaʹyinʞa, a member of the gens, his people have three subgentes, a, Wakeʹc̷te, Flags; b, Waʹtsetsi, meaning, perhaps, Has-come hither (tsi)-after-touching-the-foe (watse); c, Qŭnʇeʹ, Red cedar.

11. Hañ'ʞa a'hü tŭⁿ', Hañʞa-having-wings, or Hü'saʇa, Limbs-stretched-stiff, or Qüc̷ i'niɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, White-eagle people, in two subgentes, which were two of the original Hañʞa fireplaces: a, Hü'saʇa Wanŭⁿ', Elder Hüsaʇa; b, Hü'saʇa, those wearing four locks of hair resembling those worn by the second division of the Wasape tuⁿ.

12. Wasa'de tŭⁿ', Having-black-bears. In two parts, which were originally two of the Hañʞa fireplaces: A, Sinʇaʞc̷ĕ, Wearing-a-tail- (or lock)-of-hair-on-the-head; in two subgentes, (a) Wasade, Black bear, or Hañ'ʞa Wa'ts‘ekawa' (meaning not learned); (b) Iñʞc̷ŭñ'ʞa ɔiñ'ʞa, Small cat. B, Wasa'de tŭⁿ, Wearing-four-locks-of-hair, two subgentes, (a) Miⁿxa'ska, Swan; (b) Tse'wac̷ĕ qe'ʞa, Dried pond-lily.

13.Ṵʹpqaⁿ, Elk, one of the seven Hañʞa fireplaces.

14. Kaⁿʹe, Kansa, or Iʹdats‘i, Holds-a-firebrand-to-the-sacred-pipes-in-order-to-light-them, or Aʹk‘a iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, South-wind people, or Taʇeʹ iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Wind people, or Peʹʇe iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Fire people. One of the seven Hañʞa fireplaces.

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The following social divisions can not be identified: Ɔaʹde iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Beaver people, said to be a subgens of the Waɔaɔe, no gens specified; Peʹtqaⁿ iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Crane people, said to be a subgens of the Hañʞa (?) sinʇaʞc̷ĕ; Wapŭñʹʞa iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Owl people; Maⁿyiñʹka iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, Earth people; aqpüʹ iʹniɥk‘ăciⁿ‘a, meaning not recorded.

There is some uncertainty respecting the true positions of a few subgentes in the camping circle. For instance, Alvin Wood said that the Tsewac̷e qeʞa formed the fourth subgens of the Tse ʹʞʇu̱a inʇe; but this was denied by ʞahiʞe waʇayiñʞa, of the Tsiʹɔu wactaʹʞe, who said that it belonged to the Paⁿɥka wactaʞe prior to the extinction of the subgens. Tsepa ʞaxe of the Wasape gens said that it formed the fourth subgens of his own people. Some make the Tsiɔu wactaʞe the third gens on the left, instead of the fourth. According to ʞahiʞe waʇayiñʞa, All the Waɔaɔe gentes claim to have come from the water, so they have ceremonies referring to beavers, because those animals swim in the water." The same authority said in 1883 that there were seven men who acted as wactaʞe, as follows: 1, Kaɥiʞe wactaʞe, of the Tsiɔu wactaʞe subgens, who had acted for eight years; 2, Pahü-ska, of the Bald-eagle or Qüc̷a pa saⁿ subgens; 3, ʞc̷emaⁿ, Clermont, of the——; 4, Taⁿwaⁿʇi hi, of the——; 5, Niɥka kidanaⁿ of Tsiɔu wehakic̷ĕ or Night gens; 6, Paⁿɥka waʇayiñʞa, Saucy Ponka, of the Waʹtsetsi or Ponka gens; 7, Niɥka waɔiⁿ taⁿa, of the same gens.

On the death of the head chief among the Osage the leading men call a council. At this council four men are named as candidates for the office, and it is asked, "Which one shall be appointed?" At this council a cuka of the Watsetsi (Ponka gens, or else from some other gens on the right) carries his pipe around the circle of councilors from right to left, while a Tsiɔu cuka (one of the Tsiɔu wactaʞe gens, or else one from some other gens on the left) carries the other pipe around from left to right. The ceremonies resemble the Ponka ceremonies for making chiefs. When the chiefs assemble in council a member of the Kaⁿse or Idats‘ĕ gens (one on the right) lights the pipes. The criers are chosen from the Kaⁿse, Ṵpqaⁿ, and Miⁿ k‘iⁿ gentes. The Tsiɔu Sinʇaʞc̷ĕ and Tse ʇu̱ʞa inʇe gentes furnish the soldiers or policemen for the Tsiɔu wactaʞe. A similar function is performed for the Paⁿɥka wactaʞe by the Waɔaɔe wanŭⁿ and Hañʞa uʇac̷anʇi gentes. The Sinʇaʞc̷ĕ and Hañʞa uʇac̷anʇi are "akiʇa watañʞa," chiefs of the soldiers; the Tse ʇu̱ʞa inʇe and Waɔaɔe Wanŭⁿ being ordinary soldiers, i. e., subordinate to the others. The Waɔaɔe Ke k‘iⁿ are the moccasin makers for the tribe. It is said that in the olden days the members of this gens used turtle shells instead of moccasins, with leeches for strings. The makers of the war-standards and war-pipes must belong to the Waɔaɔe ska.

Saucy Chief is the authority for the following: "Should all the Osage wish to dwell very near another tribe, or in case two or three families of us wish to remove to another part of the reservation, we let the

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others know our desire to live near them. We make up prizes for them—a pony, a blanket, strouding, etc—and we ask them to race for them. The fastest horse takes the first prize, and so on. We take along a pipe and some sticks—one stick for each member of the party that is removing. The other people meet its and race with us back to their home. They make us sit in a row; then one of their men or children brings a pipe to one of our party to whom he intends giving a horse. The pipe is handed to the rest of the party. The newcomers are invited to feasts, all of which they are obliged to attend." When the Osage go on the hunt the Tsiɔu wactaʞe (chief) tells the Sinʇaʞc̷ě and Tse ʇu̱ʞa inʇe where the people must camp. The following evening the Paⁿɥka wactaʞe (chief) tells the soldiers on his side (the Waɔaɔe and Hañʞa uʇac̷anʇi) where the camp must be on the following day. The members of the four gentes of soldiers or policemen meet in council and decide on the time for departure. They consult the Tsiɔu wactaʞe and Hañʞa (Paⁿɥka wactaʞe?) who attend the council. The crier is generally a man of either the Ṵpqaⁿ or Kaⁿse gens, but sometimes a Miⁿ k‘iⁿ man acts. The four leaders of the soldier gentes call on the crier to proclaim the next camping place, etc, which he does thus:

which is to say, "Halloo! tomorrow morning you shall pack your goods (strike camp). Halloo! you shall lay them down alter reaching (the other side of Missouri river)!"

Then the four leaders of the soldier gentes choose aʹkiʇa (policemen) who have a ʇuʇaⁿʹhañʞa or captain, who then acts as crier in giving orders, thus:

which means, "Halloo, O warrior! Halloo, O warrior, Saucy Chief! They have really said that you shall act as policeman or guard, 0 warrior!" These aʹkiʇa have to punish any persons who violate the laws of the hunt. But there is another grade of men; the four leaders of the soldier gentes tell the captain to call certain men wa'paʞc̷aʹɔi utsiⁿʹ, and they are expected to punish any aʹkiʇa who fail to do their duty. Supposing Miⁿ K‘iⁿ waʇayinʞa was selected , the crier would say:

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The four headmen direct a captain to order a Hañʞa uʇac̷anʇi man to lead the scouts, and subsequently to call on a Sinʇaʞc̷ě man for that purpose, alternating between the two sides of the camping circle. There are thus three grades of men engaged the hunt—the ordinary members of the soldier gentes, the akiʇa, and the wapaʞc̷a,ɔi utsiⁿ.

Should the Osage be warring against the Kansa or any other tribe, and one of the foe slip into the Osage camp and beg for protection of the Tsiɔu wactaʞe (chief), the latter is obliged to help the suppliant. He must send for the Sinʇaʞc̷ě and Tse ʇu̱ʞa inʇe (leaders), whom he would thus address: "I have a man whom I wish to live. I desire you to act as my soldiers." At the same time the Tsiɔu wactaʞe would send word to the Paⁿɥka wactaʞe, who would summon a Waɔaɔe and a Hañʞa uʇac̷anʇi to act as his soldiers or policemen. Meantime the kettle of the Tsiɔu wactaʞe was hung over the fire as soon as possible and food was cooked and given to the fugitive. When he had eaten (a mouthful) he was safe. He could then go through the camp with impunity. This condition of affairs lasted as long as he remained with the tribe, but it terminated when he returned to his home. After food had been given to the fugitive by the Tsiɔu wactaʞe any prominent man of the tribe could invite the fugitive to a feast.

The privilege of taking care of the children was given to the Tsiɔu wactaʞe and the Paⁿɥka wactaʞe, according to Saucy Chief. When a child (on the Tsiɔu side) is named, a certain old man is required to sing songs outside of the camp, dropping some tobacco from his pipe down on the toes of his left foot as he sings each song. On the first day the old than of the Tsiɔu (wactaʞe?) takes four grains of corn, one grain being black, another red, a third blue, and a fourth white, answering to the four kinds of corn dropped by the four buffalo, as mentioned in the tradition of the Osage. After chewing the four grains and mixing them with his saliva, he passes them between the lips of the child to be named. Four stones are put into a fire, one stone toward each of the four quarters. The Tsiɔu old man orders some cedar and a few blades of a certain kind of grass that does not die in winter, to be put aside for his use on the second day. On the second day, before sunrise, the Tsiɔu old man speaks of the cedar tree and its branches, saying, "It shall be for the children." Then he mentions the river, the deep holes in it, and its branches, which he declares shall be medicine in future for the children. He takes the four heated stones, places them in a pile, on which he puts the grass and cedar. Over this he pours water, making steam, over which the child is held. Then four names are given by the headman of the gens to the father, who selects one of them as the name for the child. Meantime men of different gentes bring cedar, stones, etc, and perform their respective ceremonies. The headman (Tsiɔu wactaʞe?) takes some of the water (into which he puts some cedar), giving four sips to the child. Then he dips his own left hand into the water and rubs the child down the left

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side, from the top of the head to the feet; next he rubs it in front, then down the right side, and finally down the back. He invites all the women of his gens who wish to be blessed to come forward, and he treats them as he did the infant. At the same time the women of the other gentes are blessed in like manner by the headmen of their respective gentes.