The Iowa camping circle was divided into two half-circles, occupied by two phratries of four gentes each. The first phratry regulated the hunt and other tribal affairs during the autumn and winter; the second phratry took the lead during the spring and summer. The author is indebted to the late Reverend William Hamilton for a list of the Iowa gentes, obtained in 1880 during a visit to the tribe. Since then the author has recorded the following list of gentes and subgentes, with the aid of a delegation of the Iowa who visited Washington:

First phratry

Gentes Subgentes
1. Tuʹ-naⁿ-p‘iⁿ, Black bear. Tohiⁿ and Çiʞre wonañe were chiefs of this gens in 1880. Tohiⁿ kept the sacred pipe.
  • 1. Taʹ-po-çka, a large black bear with a white spot on the chest.
  • 2. Puⁿʹ-xa çka, a black bear with a red nose; literally, Nose White.
  • 3. Mŭⁿ-tciʹ-nye, Young black bear, a short black bear.
  • 4. Kiʹ-ro-koʹ-qo-tce, a small reddish black bear, motherless; it has little hair and runs swiftly.
2. Mi-tciʹ-ra-tce, Wolf. Ma'-hiⁿ was a chief of this gens.
  • 1. Cŭⁿʹ-taⁿ çka, White-wolf.
  • 2. Cŭnʹ-taⁿ çe-we, Black-wolf.
  • 3. Cŭⁿʹ-taⁿ qoʹ-ʇɔe, Gray-wolf.
  • 4. Ma-nyiʹ-ka-qçiʹ, Coyote.
3. Tceʹ-xi-ta, Eagle and Thunder-being gens.
  • 1. Naʹ tci-tceʹ, i.e., Qraʹ qtci, Real or Golden eagle.
  • 2. Qraʹ hŭñʹ-e, Ancestral or Gray eagle.
  • 3. Qraʹ ʞreʹ-ye, Spotted-eagle.
  • 4. Qraʹ pa çaⁿ, Bald-eagle.
4. Qoʹ-ta-tci. Elk; now extinct. The Elk gens furnished the soldiers or policemen.
  • 1. Ŭⁿʹ-pe-xa qaⁿʹ-ye, Big-elk.
  • 2. Ŭⁿʹ-pe-xa yiñʹ-e, Young-elk (?).
  • 3. Ŭⁿʹ-pe-xa ɔ̉reʹ-ʇɔe yiñʹ-e, Elk-some-what-long.
  • 4. Hoʹ-ma yiñʹ-e, Young elk (?). The difference between Ŭⁿpexa and Homa is unknown. The former may be the archaic name for "elk."

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First phratry–Continued

Gentes Subgentes
5. Pa'-qça, Beaver. Probably the archaic name, as beaver is now ra-we. The survivors of this gens have joined the Pa-ça or Beaver gens of the Oto tribe.
  • 1. Ra-weʹ qaⁿʹ ye, Big-beaver.
  • 2. Ra-ɔ̉roʹ-ʇɔe, meaning unknown.
  • 3. Ra-weʹ yiñʹ-e, Young-beaver.
  • 4. Niʹwaⁿ-ciʹ-ke, Water-person.

Second phratry

[Gentes] [Subgentes]
6. Ruʹ-tce, Pigeon.
  • 1. Miⁿ-keʹ qaⁿʹ-ye, Big-raccoon.
  • 2. Miⁿʹ-keʹ yiñʹ-e, Young-raccoon.
  • 3. Ruʹ-tce yiñʹ-e, Young-pigeon.
  • 4. Coʹ-ke, Prairie-chicken, grouse.
7. Aʹ-ru-qwa, Buffalo.
  • 1. Tce-ʇoʹ qaⁿʹ-ye, Big-buffalo-bull.
  • 2. Tce-ʇoʹ yiñʹ-e, Young-buffalo-bull.
  • 3. Tce p‘oʹ-cke yiñʹ-e, Young-buffalo-bull-that-is-distended (?).
  • 4. Tce yiñʹ-ye, Buffalo-calf.
8. Wa-kaⁿʹ, Snake. An extinct gens.
  • 1. Wa-kaⁿʹ ɔ̉i, Yellow-snake, i.e., Rattlesnake.
  • 2. Wa-kaⁿʹ-gtci, Real-snake (named after a species shorter than the rattlesnake).
  • 3. Ceʹ-ke yiñʹ-e, Small or young coke, the copperhead snake (?).
  • 4. Wa-kaⁿʹ qoʹ-ʇɔe, Gray-snake (a long snake, which the Omaha call swift blue snake).
9. Mañʹ-ko-ke, Owl. Extinct. The names of the subgentes have been forgotten.

An account of the mythical origin of each Iowa gens, first recorded by the Reverend William Hamilton, has been published in the Journal of American Folk-lore.1

The visiting and marriage customs of the Iowa did not differ from those of the cognate tribes, nor did their management of the children differ from that of the Dakota, the Omaha, and others.

Murder was often punished with death, by the nearest of kin or by

1 Vol. IV, No. 15, pp. 338-340, 1891.
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some friend of the murdered person. Sometimes, however, the murderer made presents to the avengers of blood, and was permitted to live.